What is involved in Business cycle
Find out what the related areas are that Business cycle connects with, associates with, correlates with or affects, and which require thought, deliberation, analysis, review and discussion. This unique checklist stands out in a sense that it is not per-se designed to give answers, but to engage the reader and lay out a Business cycle thinking-frame.
How far is your company on its Business cycle journey?
Take this short survey to gauge your organization’s progress toward Business cycle leadership. Learn your strongest and weakest areas, and what you can do now to create a strategy that delivers results.
To address the criteria in this checklist for your organization, extensive selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information.
Start the Checklist
Below you will find a quick checklist designed to help you think about which Business cycle related domains to cover and 143 essential critical questions to check off in that domain.
The following domains are covered:
Business cycle, Organizational economics, Social alienation, Managerial economics, Friedrich Hayek, Economic crises, Repurchase agreement, Market fundamentalism, Development economics, Ancient economic thought, Multinational corporation, General equilibrium theory, Institutional economics, Land value tax, Ecological economics, General glut, IS–LM model, Market failure, Budget set, JEL classification codes, Interest rate, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Economic development, Financial crisis, Production set, Financial economics, The Great Moderation, Wealth inequality, Balance of payments, Economies of scope, National accounts, Panic of 1873, Economic theory, World Bank, Debt deflation, Post-Keynesian economics, Wage labour, Austrian Business Cycle Theory, Léon Walras, Index of economics articles, Market economies, Libertarian socialism, Welfare economics, Market structure, Supply and demand, Social choice theory, Amartya Sen, Nikolai Kondratiev, Skyscraper Index, Public good, Crisis theory, Early 1990s recession, European Free Trade Association, American Dream, Austrian school of economics, Kondratiev waves, Economic surplus, Economies of scale, Automatic stabilization, Early 1980s recession:
Business cycle Critical Criteria:
Study Business cycle quality and cater for concise Business cycle education.
– Do the Business cycle decisions we make today help people and the planet tomorrow?
– To what extent does management recognize Business cycle as a tool to increase the results?
– Do you monitor the effectiveness of your Business cycle activities?
Organizational economics Critical Criteria:
Survey Organizational economics strategies and spearhead techniques for implementing Organizational economics.
– What new services of functionality will be implemented next with Business cycle ?
Social alienation Critical Criteria:
Add value to Social alienation adoptions and reinforce and communicate particularly sensitive Social alienation decisions.
– Does Business cycle include applications and information with regulatory compliance significance (or other contractual conditions that must be formally complied with) in a new or unique manner for which no approved security requirements, templates or design models exist?
– What business benefits will Business cycle goals deliver if achieved?
– How will you measure your Business cycle effectiveness?
Managerial economics Critical Criteria:
Jump start Managerial economics leadership and find the ideas you already have.
– Record-keeping requirements flow from the records needed as inputs, outputs, controls and for transformation of a Business cycle process. ask yourself: are the records needed as inputs to the Business cycle process available?
– Do we aggressively reward and promote the people who have the biggest impact on creating excellent Business cycle services/products?
– Will new equipment/products be required to facilitate Business cycle delivery for example is new software needed?
Friedrich Hayek Critical Criteria:
Steer Friedrich Hayek governance and test out new things.
– How do you incorporate cycle time, productivity, cost control, and other efficiency and effectiveness factors into these Business cycle processes?
– What are our needs in relation to Business cycle skills, labor, equipment, and markets?
– How is the value delivered by Business cycle being measured?
Economic crises Critical Criteria:
Boost Economic crises goals and find the ideas you already have.
– Do we cover the five essential competencies-Communication, Collaboration,Innovation, Adaptability, and Leadership that improve an organizations ability to leverage the new Business cycle in a volatile global economy?
– Risk factors: what are the characteristics of Business cycle that make it risky?
– Do we all define Business cycle in the same way?
Repurchase agreement Critical Criteria:
Look at Repurchase agreement tactics and get out your magnifying glass.
– What may be the consequences for the performance of an organization if all stakeholders are not consulted regarding Business cycle?
– Is Business cycle Realistic, or are you setting yourself up for failure?
– Have you identified your Business cycle key performance indicators?
Market fundamentalism Critical Criteria:
Generalize Market fundamentalism governance and report on developing an effective Market fundamentalism strategy.
– Why is it important to have senior management support for a Business cycle project?
– How do we Identify specific Business cycle investment and emerging trends?
– Is there any existing Business cycle governance structure?
Development economics Critical Criteria:
Ventilate your thoughts about Development economics projects and reduce Development economics costs.
– How do we ensure that implementations of Business cycle products are done in a way that ensures safety?
– What tools and technologies are needed for a custom Business cycle project?
Ancient economic thought Critical Criteria:
Discourse Ancient economic thought issues and probe using an integrated framework to make sure Ancient economic thought is getting what it needs.
– What tools do you use once you have decided on a Business cycle strategy and more importantly how do you choose?
– What is the total cost related to deploying Business cycle, including any consulting or professional services?
– Have all basic functions of Business cycle been defined?
Multinational corporation Critical Criteria:
Define Multinational corporation goals and pay attention to the small things.
– Which customers cant participate in our Business cycle domain because they lack skills, wealth, or convenient access to existing solutions?
– What are the barriers to increased Business cycle production?
General equilibrium theory Critical Criteria:
Boost General equilibrium theory quality and look for lots of ideas.
– How do mission and objectives affect the Business cycle processes of our organization?
– How can skill-level changes improve Business cycle?
Institutional economics Critical Criteria:
See the value of Institutional economics goals and know what your objective is.
– Will Business cycle deliverables need to be tested and, if so, by whom?
Land value tax Critical Criteria:
Chat re Land value tax goals and budget the knowledge transfer for any interested in Land value tax.
– How do senior leaders actions reflect a commitment to the organizations Business cycle values?
– Are assumptions made in Business cycle stated explicitly?
– Are there Business cycle Models?
Ecological economics Critical Criteria:
Discuss Ecological economics governance and pay attention to the small things.
– In the case of a Business cycle project, the criteria for the audit derive from implementation objectives. an audit of a Business cycle project involves assessing whether the recommendations outlined for implementation have been met. in other words, can we track that any Business cycle project is implemented as planned, and is it working?
– How do you determine the key elements that affect Business cycle workforce satisfaction? how are these elements determined for different workforce groups and segments?
– How can we incorporate support to ensure safe and effective use of Business cycle into the services that we provide?
General glut Critical Criteria:
Consult on General glut governance and summarize a clear General glut focus.
– What are your key performance measures or indicators and in-process measures for the control and improvement of your Business cycle processes?
– What are the disruptive Business cycle technologies that enable our organization to radically change our business processes?
– What role does communication play in the success or failure of a Business cycle project?
IS–LM model Critical Criteria:
Nurse IS–LM model leadership and get answers.
– Think about the people you identified for your Business cycle project and the project responsibilities you would assign to them. what kind of training do you think they would need to perform these responsibilities effectively?
– How to Secure Business cycle?
Market failure Critical Criteria:
Start Market failure tactics and customize techniques for implementing Market failure controls.
– For your Business cycle project, identify and describe the business environment. is there more than one layer to the business environment?
– Is there a Business cycle Communication plan covering who needs to get what information when?
Budget set Critical Criteria:
Gauge Budget set tasks and budget for Budget set challenges.
– How do we know that any Business cycle analysis is complete and comprehensive?
– Have the types of risks that may impact Business cycle been identified and analyzed?
– What are the business goals Business cycle is aiming to achieve?
JEL classification codes Critical Criteria:
Collaborate on JEL classification codes tactics and research ways can we become the JEL classification codes company that would put us out of business.
– Do we have past Business cycle Successes?
– How much does Business cycle help?
Interest rate Critical Criteria:
Examine Interest rate management and probe the present value of growth of Interest rate.
– Marketing budgets are tighter, consumers are more skeptical, and social media has changed forever the way we talk about Business cycle. How do we gain traction?
– What is your current effective interest rate on loans?
– Are there Business cycle problems defined?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Critical Criteria:
Weigh in on Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis governance and get out your magnifying glass.
– Who is responsible for ensuring appropriate resources (time, people and money) are allocated to Business cycle?
Economic development Critical Criteria:
Boost Economic development tactics and remodel and develop an effective Economic development strategy.
– Is the scope of Business cycle defined?
Financial crisis Critical Criteria:
Reason over Financial crisis quality and learn.
– What are the usability implications of Business cycle actions?
Production set Critical Criteria:
Pay attention to Production set tactics and gather practices for scaling Production set.
– Can we add value to the current Business cycle decision-making process (largely qualitative) by incorporating uncertainty modeling (more quantitative)?
– Who sets the Business cycle standards?
Financial economics Critical Criteria:
Facilitate Financial economics strategies and budget for Financial economics challenges.
– What are our best practices for minimizing Business cycle project risk, while demonstrating incremental value and quick wins throughout the Business cycle project lifecycle?
– How important is Business cycle to the user organizations mission?
– Why should we adopt a Business cycle framework?
The Great Moderation Critical Criteria:
Give examples of The Great Moderation quality and drive action.
Wealth inequality Critical Criteria:
Design Wealth inequality adoptions and maintain Wealth inequality for success.
– At what point will vulnerability assessments be performed once Business cycle is put into production (e.g., ongoing Risk Management after implementation)?
– What are the long-term Business cycle goals?
Balance of payments Critical Criteria:
Systematize Balance of payments risks and clarify ways to gain access to competitive Balance of payments services.
– What other jobs or tasks affect the performance of the steps in the Business cycle process?
– How do we manage Business cycle Knowledge Management (KM)?
Economies of scope Critical Criteria:
Incorporate Economies of scope outcomes and adopt an insight outlook.
– Who are the people involved in developing and implementing Business cycle?
– Who needs to know about Business cycle ?
– How can we improve Business cycle?
National accounts Critical Criteria:
Understand National accounts planning and differentiate in coordinating National accounts.
– How do we make it meaningful in connecting Business cycle with what users do day-to-day?
– How can you measure Business cycle in a systematic way?
Panic of 1873 Critical Criteria:
Jump start Panic of 1873 leadership and probe using an integrated framework to make sure Panic of 1873 is getting what it needs.
– Do those selected for the Business cycle team have a good general understanding of what Business cycle is all about?
– Are there recognized Business cycle problems?
Economic theory Critical Criteria:
Meet over Economic theory strategies and achieve a single Economic theory view and bringing data together.
– What are all of our Business cycle domains and what do they do?
World Bank Critical Criteria:
Investigate World Bank tasks and get going.
– What will be the consequences to the business (financial, reputation etc) if Business cycle does not go ahead or fails to deliver the objectives?
Debt deflation Critical Criteria:
Consolidate Debt deflation risks and mentor Debt deflation customer orientation.
Post-Keynesian economics Critical Criteria:
Accumulate Post-Keynesian economics strategies and oversee Post-Keynesian economics requirements.
– What are the short and long-term Business cycle goals?
– How can the value of Business cycle be defined?
Wage labour Critical Criteria:
Study Wage labour decisions and question.
– What are internal and external Business cycle relations?
Austrian Business Cycle Theory Critical Criteria:
Be responsible for Austrian Business Cycle Theory planning and catalog what business benefits will Austrian Business Cycle Theory goals deliver if achieved.
– Can Management personnel recognize the monetary benefit of Business cycle?
Léon Walras Critical Criteria:
Prioritize Léon Walras strategies and secure Léon Walras creativity.
– Who is the main stakeholder, with ultimate responsibility for driving Business cycle forward?
– What threat is Business cycle addressing?
Index of economics articles Critical Criteria:
Transcribe Index of economics articles visions and attract Index of economics articles skills.
– How will you know that the Business cycle project has been successful?
– Is Supporting Business cycle documentation required?
Market economies Critical Criteria:
Think carefully about Market economies tactics and tour deciding if Market economies progress is made.
– In a project to restructure Business cycle outcomes, which stakeholders would you involve?
Libertarian socialism Critical Criteria:
Reorganize Libertarian socialism issues and drive action.
Welfare economics Critical Criteria:
Confer re Welfare economics visions and forecast involvement of future Welfare economics projects in development.
Market structure Critical Criteria:
Talk about Market structure tasks and probe Market structure strategic alliances.
– Is maximizing Business cycle protection the same as minimizing Business cycle loss?
– What are the record-keeping requirements of Business cycle activities?
– What are the implications for market structure?
Supply and demand Critical Criteria:
Guard Supply and demand management and handle a jump-start course to Supply and demand.
– Are we making progress? and are we making progress as Business cycle leaders?
– How does the organization define, manage, and improve its Business cycle processes?
Social choice theory Critical Criteria:
Add value to Social choice theory strategies and balance specific methods for improving Social choice theory results.
– How do your measurements capture actionable Business cycle information for use in exceeding your customers expectations and securing your customers engagement?
– How do we measure improved Business cycle service perception, and satisfaction?
Amartya Sen Critical Criteria:
Scan Amartya Sen visions and revise understanding of Amartya Sen architectures.
Nikolai Kondratiev Critical Criteria:
Discourse Nikolai Kondratiev governance and slay a dragon.
– When a Business cycle manager recognizes a problem, what options are available?
– Does the Business cycle task fit the clients priorities?
Skyscraper Index Critical Criteria:
Be responsible for Skyscraper Index outcomes and maintain Skyscraper Index for success.
– What sources do you use to gather information for a Business cycle study?
Public good Critical Criteria:
Inquire about Public good quality and observe effective Public good.
– Does Business cycle analysis show the relationships among important Business cycle factors?
Crisis theory Critical Criteria:
Set goals for Crisis theory decisions and integrate design thinking in Crisis theory innovation.
Early 1990s recession Critical Criteria:
Tête-à-tête about Early 1990s recession adoptions and question.
– What management system can we use to leverage the Business cycle experience, ideas, and concerns of the people closest to the work to be done?
European Free Trade Association Critical Criteria:
Demonstrate European Free Trade Association planning and grade techniques for implementing European Free Trade Association controls.
American Dream Critical Criteria:
Conceptualize American Dream strategies and budget for American Dream challenges.
– Will the Collapse of the American Dream Lead to a Decline in Ethical Business Behaviour?
– What are your most important goals for the strategic Business cycle objectives?
Austrian school of economics Critical Criteria:
Investigate Austrian school of economics management and attract Austrian school of economics skills.
– what is the best design framework for Business cycle organization now that, in a post industrial-age if the top-down, command and control model is no longer relevant?
Kondratiev waves Critical Criteria:
Differentiate Kondratiev waves governance and prioritize challenges of Kondratiev waves.
– Meeting the challenge: are missed Business cycle opportunities costing us money?
Economic surplus Critical Criteria:
Consolidate Economic surplus tasks and customize techniques for implementing Economic surplus controls.
– Who will provide the final approval of Business cycle deliverables?
Economies of scale Critical Criteria:
Nurse Economies of scale failures and define what do we need to start doing with Economies of scale.
Automatic stabilization Critical Criteria:
Probe Automatic stabilization tasks and question.
– Does our organization need more Business cycle education?
Early 1980s recession Critical Criteria:
Reconstruct Early 1980s recession quality and frame using storytelling to create more compelling Early 1980s recession projects.
– What is the source of the strategies for Business cycle strengthening and reform?
This quick readiness checklist is a selected resource to help you move forward. Learn more about how to achieve comprehensive insights with the Business cycle Self Assessment:
Author: Gerard Blokdijk
CEO at The Art of Service | http://theartofservice.com
Gerard is the CEO at The Art of Service. He has been providing information technology insights, talks, tools and products to organizations in a wide range of industries for over 25 years. Gerard is a widely recognized and respected information expert. Gerard founded The Art of Service consulting business in 2000. Gerard has authored numerous published books to date.
To address the criteria in this checklist, these selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information:
Business cycle External links:
[PDF]The Business Cycle and the Life Cycle – National …
[PDF]The Nature and Causes of Business Cycles
Economics – The Business Cycle – ProProfs Quiz
Organizational economics External links:
Organizational Economics – investopedia.com
SIOE | Society for Institutional & Organizational Economics
Organizational economics (Book, 1986) [WorldCat.org]
Social alienation External links:
Alienation and Social Alienation – Definitions in Sociology
Ron Paul and Social Alienation – YouTube
Managerial economics External links:
AbeBooks.com: Managerial Economics (Upper Level Economics Titles) (9781133951483) by Luke M. Froeb; Brian T. McCann; Michael R. Ward; Mike Shor and a …
Managerial Economics – AbeBooks
Managerial economics (Book, 1996) [WorldCat.org]
Friedrich Hayek External links:
Friedrich Hayek (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
[PDF]Retrospectives: Friedrich Hayek and the Market …
Friedrich Hayek: Misconceptions About Economics – …
Repurchase agreement External links:
Repurchase Agreement – Repo – Investopedia
Statement Regarding Repurchase Agreement Small …
Repurchase Agreement Definition from Financial Times …
Market fundamentalism External links:
Joseph Stiglitz – “Market Fundamentalism Is Dead” – YouTube
Free Market Fundamentalism: Neoliberalism, Friedman, …
[PDF]Market Fundamentalism’s New Fiasco: …
Development economics External links:
Home | International and Development Economics
Development Economics Flashcards | Quizlet
Development Economics – Investopedia
Ancient economic thought External links:
ANCIENT ECONOMIC THOUGHT – laugh.solutions
Ancient economic thought (eBook, 1996) [WorldCat.org]
Ancient economic thought (Book, 1996) [WorldCat.org]
Multinational corporation External links:
Multinational corporation | business | Britannica.com
Multinational Corporation – MNC
[PDF]The Multinational Corporation and Global Governance
General equilibrium theory External links:
[PDF]General equilibrium theory – New York University
http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/bisina/Lecture notes Nov1.pdf
General Equilibrium Theory – investopedia.com
Classical General Equilibrium Theory | The MIT Press
Institutional economics External links:
Institutional economics – New World Encyclopedia
Institutional economics (Book, 2009) [WorldCat.org]
Institutional economics (Book, 1988) [WorldCat.org]
Land value tax External links:
[PDF]A LAND VALUE TAX FOR SCOTLAND – Andy Wightman
[PDF]BENEFITS OF LAND VALUE TAXATION – Tax Justice …
Land Value Tax
Ecological economics External links:
Title, Ecological Economics | DeepDyve
ecological economics | Fort Collins Science Center
Ecological economics (Journal, magazine) [WorldCat.org]
General glut External links:
General glut – Revolvy
The General Glut Controversy – cruel.org
Holdings: Say’s law and the general glut controversy.
Market failure External links:
Market Failure – Investopedia
What are the main causes of market failure? – Quora
Market failure | economics | Britannica.com
Budget set External links:
Budgeting With Mimi:101 and Budget Set Up for 2018 – YouTube
2018 Budget Set-up Part I – YouTube
JEL classification codes External links:
JEL classification codes – YouTube
JEL Classification Codes – R
JEL Classification Codes – mruni.eu
Interest rate External links:
» Interest Rate Calculators – Interest.com
Interest Rate Reduction Refinance Loan – VA Home Loans
[PDF]Understanding Interest Rate Swap Math & Pricing
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis External links:
Open Vault Blog | Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Career Fair | St. Louis, Mo.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Centennial | FRASER | …
Economic development External links:
Department of Economic Development – Missouri
– Chester County Economic Development Council
Welcome to the New Mexico Economic Development …
Financial crisis External links:
Doug Casey on the Coming Financial Crisis – Casey Research
Lest We Forget: Why We Had A Financial Crisis – Forbes
Financial economics External links:
MFE: Models for Financial Economics | SOA
Financial economics (eBook, 2012) [WorldCat.org]
What is FINANCIAL ECONOMICS? definition of …
The Great Moderation External links:
“The Great Moderation and the Relationship between …
The Great Moderation | Federal Reserve History
The Great Moderation – investopedia.com
Wealth inequality External links:
On the Issues: Income and Wealth Inequality – Bernie Sanders
Sanders’ Wealth Inequality Stat – FactCheck.org
Balance of payments External links:
Balance of Payments | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Economies of scope External links:
Economies of Scope Definition | Investopedia
Economies of Scope – Tom Spencer
Economies of Scope – Encyclopedia – Business Terms – Inc.com
National accounts External links:
Client Area | National Accounts Services | ADP
National accounts (Journal, magazine, 1969) [WorldCat.org]
National Accounts – Employers | Aetna
Panic of 1873 External links:
PANIC OF 1873 – Encyclopedia Dubuque
Panic of 1873 – encyclopedia article – Citizendium
The Great Financial Panic of 1873 – Library of Congress
Economic theory External links:
What Is Economic Theory? (with pictures) – wiseGEEK
Economic Theory – Springer
The most important economic theory in tech – Fast Company
World Bank External links:
World Bank – The New York Times
WBG Open Finances | World Bank Group Finances
World Bank – Wells Fargo
Debt deflation External links:
Debt Deflation – Investopedia
Fed Concerned About Debt Deflation :: Deflation
Post-Keynesian economics External links:
Post-Keynesian Economics – e-elgar.com
Post-Keynesian Economics – e-elgar.com
Post-Keynesian Economics. (eBook, 2013) [WorldCat.org]
Wage labour External links:
Wage Labour and Capital – Marxists Internet Archive
[PDF]Some Notes on Female Wage Labour in Capitalist …
Wage Labour and Capital – Local Business | Facebook
Austrian Business Cycle Theory External links:
Austrian Business Cycle Theory – Austria Net Worth
Austrian Business Cycle Theory learning materials – …
Index of economics articles External links:
Index of economics articles – revolvy.com
http://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Index of economics articles
Index of economics articles – WOW.com
Index of economics articles – Revolvy
https://topics.revolvy.com/topic/Index of economics articles
Market economies External links:
Economic Systems: Non-market Economies
What are Free Market Economies? – Video | Investopedia
The Fed – Emerging Market Economies
Libertarian socialism External links:
Libertarian Socialism – reddit
Urban Dictionary: Libertarian Socialism
What is Libertarian Socialism? – Thoughts on Liberty
Welfare economics External links:
Welfare Economics – Quora
Welfare Economics Flashcards | Quizlet
Welfare Economics – Investopedia
Market structure External links:
Market structure. (VHS tape, 1987) [WorldCat.org]
Market Structure Essays
Types of Market Structures – Finance Train
Supply and demand External links:
Supply and Demand Curves – Mind Tools – Online
supply and demand | economics | Britannica.com
What is Supply And Demand? definition and meaning
Social choice theory External links:
[PDF]FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIAL CHOICE THEORY
Social Choice Theory – investopedia.com
[PDF]Social choice theory, social decision scheme theory, …
Amartya Sen External links:
Amartya Sen | Indian economist | Britannica.com
Amartya Sen – Harvard University
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE | Amartya Sen
Nikolai Kondratiev External links:
http://Ad · www.Amazon.com/Nikolai Kondratiev
Nikolai Kondratiev – New World Encyclopedia
Skyscraper Index External links:
CHART OF THE DAY: The Skyscraper Index – Business Insider
What Is the Skyscraper Index? – MSN
Skyscraper Index Goes Global | Zero Hedge
Public good External links:
Expert Insights for the Public Good | JPMorgan Chase …
Serving the Public Good | Princeton University
Crisis theory External links:
Crisis Theory and Types of Crisis – Dustin K MacDonald
A Critique of Crisis Theory | From a Marxist perspective
Crisis Theory – Viewpoint Magazine
European Free Trade Association External links:
European Free Trade Association | Britannica.com
American Dream External links:
Requiem for the American Dream (2015) – IMDb
Austrian school of economics External links:
Austrian school of economics | Britannica.com
Austrian School of Economics: The Concise …
New Austrian School of Economics – Home | Facebook
Kondratiev waves External links:
Kondratiev Waves Are Nonsense – GoldRepublic.com
Kondratiev waves financial definition of Kondratiev waves
What are Kondratiev Waves? Many investors point to Kondratiev waves (also called supercycles or long waves) as a reason to invest in gold. Market Update
Economic surplus External links:
What is economic surplus? – Quora
Chapter 4: Economic Surplus Flashcards | Quizlet
Challenge 2 | Economic Surplus | Economic Equilibrium
Economies of scale External links:
Economies of scale Flashcards | Quizlet
Economies of scale and scope | The Economist
Economies of Scale: Definition, Types – The Balance
Automatic stabilization External links:
Automatic stabilization – NASA
Early 1980s recession External links:
Early 1980s recession – Revolvy
https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Early 1980s recession